Extensive official archaeological excavations have been carried out within parts of the citadel over the past 120 years. However, the Muslims firmly refuse any such investigations either within or beneath the perimeter walls of the two mosques. Consequently, it has never been possible to determine precisely the foundations of the First Temple which, according to Josephus, "had been laid very deep in the ground."
It is perhaps worth bearing in mind that, from the time the Jews returned to Canaan (around 1400 NC), and for the next 2000 years or so, the territory occupied by their tribes varied surprisingly little. Their boundaries, in the main, lay from the Mediterranean coastline (The Great Sea) eastwards for almost 80 miles (130 km) in places; and southwards from the Golan Heights for about 150 miles (240 km) to the southern end of the Dead Sea.
This, together with the bitter resentment engendered by the imposition of Muslim mosques upon David's original site, goes some way to explain why the present State of Israel is so adamant about its retention of the whole of Jerusalem. It also goes a long way to explain the deep divisions within the Israeli nation today: between those struggling for what they consider to be their birthright, and those yearning for peace with their Arab neighbours.
The Jews are back in their land. A land which they all profoundly believe to be their's by Divine Right; it having been given to them in perpetuity by the Almighty (35).